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A Brief History of Hengyang
From:衡阳党政门户网 | Date Add in:2018-07-26 00:09:55 [A  A]

 

 

Since an old Chinese saying says that the south of a mountain and the north of a river are called Yang and the city is located in the south of Mount Hengshan, it is called Hengyang. It is said that wild geese would fly from north to south to live through the old winter and Hengyang is the place where they stop and stay for the winter. The geese would stop and live in the Huiyan Peak, so the city is also named "Wild Goose City".

Hengyang has achieved great developments and now it has turned into the national modern logistics hub city and is one of the Top 50 Informationaized City again after 2008, becoming the only city who continuously won the award in Hunan province. Hengyang is not only the regional logistics center ,but also the center of Northern part of South China(Southern Hunan, Southern Jiangxi, Northern Guangdong, Northern Guangxi). The built-up urban area and urban population of Hengyang is second only to Changsha. In 2009 the urban area of Hengyang covers 120.5 square kilometers, and the permanent population living in the urban area is about 1.208 million.

The total population of Hengyang has increased to 7520000 in 2009 from 3118500 in 1949, which has grown by 2.41 times, while the population growth dropped from 5.27% in 1949 to 0.31% in 2008. Besides, spatial distribution of population and economic development are more harmonious, and population quality also increased, so the population has continuously got great development. There are 5 counties, 2 cities (at county level) and 5 districts under Hengyang’s jurisdiction, covering a total area of 15,300 square kilometers and a total population of 7311400.

Since ancient times, talents comes forth in large numbers in Hengyang. Searching back to the ancient times, we can find many great contributors from Hengyang, like the world`s greatest inventor of paper Cai Lun, Hunan`s first prime minister, the famous statesman in Three Kingdoms times, militarist Jiang Wan, famous politician of the Three Kingdoms, economic activist Liu Ba (once prized as minister and Liu Bei`s most unique talents. According to historical records, Zhu Geliang appreciated Liu Ba’s talent very much, and repeatedly recommended to Liu Bei that no one could see further than Liu Ba. When Liu Bei firstly settled in Chengdu, the lack of military expenditure made him very worried and Zhu Geliang also couldn`t come up with any countermeasures. Liu Ba suggested that the government produce coins worthing 100 wen to help administrate market and stabilize prices. Liu Bei accepted the suggestion, and after few months great changes took place, and the government could receive surplus money and food. Liu Ba had known how to use the government measures to interfere the market, known how to use the currency supply and demand to regulate the economic growth, which was really rare at that time. Later, the British economist John Maynard Keynes who systematically expanded the theory was one thousand seven hundred years younger than Liu Ba).

In addition, there are more, such as outstanding statesman, militarist Gu Lang in the Three Kingdoms times; Hunan earliest philosopher、famous writer、thinker,、geographer Luo Han in the Dong Jin Dynasty; the brave anti-Jin general Zhao Fang and the prime minister and Senator Zhao Kui in Nan Song Dynasty; the winner of three governmental examinations――number one scholar He Keming in Yuan Dynasty; and the world’s most outstanding philosophers Wang Fuzhi (Wang Chuanshan) who was as famous as Hegel; the famous prime minister and the secretary of the Grand Council Chen Dashou in Qing Dynasty; scholar Peng Jun in Qing Dynasty, one of the Top 4 Ministers in Qing Dynasty、founder of the modern Chinese navy, chief of Xiang Army Peng Yulin; member of Chinese Alliance and the first people died for the revolution Liu Daoyi; Chairman Mao`s first favorite general Wu Zhonghao; one of the founding fathers of China、the only Marshal working with Chairman Mao’s entire lifetime ――Luo Ronghua;,the commander-in-chief Zhu De`s wife Wu Ruolan and so on. The originator of neo-confucianism Zhou Dunyi in Song Dynasty whose father died early when he was a child, living with uncle Zheng Xiang the Hengzhou feudal provincial,composed his masterpiece "On the Love of Lotus" (Ai Lian Shuo) beside the West Lake which is located in the Yanwuping. Wu Sangui, a minister in Qing Dynasty, held the Castilian Coronation in Mantou Valley in Huiyan Ridge, granting titles upon all the officials and enlisting talents through the civil service examination system. The reason why he chose here to officially become an emperor is the geographic location of Hengyang and the Mountain Hengshan treasure combining with Buddhism and Taoism, and her profound gracefulness.

Nanyue Mount Heng winds and prolongs for thousands of miles with Huiyan Peak as the first peak and the Yuelu Peak as the last one. There are four famous Academies in China, Shigu Academy in south Hengyang and Yuelu Academy in north Changsha. Besides Shigu Academy, the earliest Academy was also built in Hengyang, which was Yehou Academy built in middle Tang Dynasty. What`s more, there are Wending Academy in Mount Heng the birthplace of Hunan culture and Chuanshan Academy named after Wang Fuzhi the most popular academy in Qing Dynasty.

In the modern Chinese history, many  brave and talented men have made great contributions to the Liberation Revolution, even their lives, such as the only female member of Chinese Alliance Tang Huaiying, the great general Luo Ronghuan who had contributed his whole lifetime to the New China, Chairman Mao’s Favorite general and one of the Top 3 Generals in Jingang Red Army Wu Zhonghao, the revolution pioneer Xia Minghan who dared to achieve belief at the price of his life, Zhu De’s wife Wu Ruolan, and the cousin of Chairman Mao Mao Zejian who was buried at the foot of Heng Mount. In 1944, the longest and most horrifying defended war fought in Hengyang for 47 days, which was also regarded as the Oriental Moscow Defended War. And Hengbao War also took place in Hengyang, which is the first battle fought by the Forth Field Army of Chinese Liberation Amy when they planned to enter the south China. Hengyang people`s wisdom, honest, courage and stubbornness are the open secrets in Hunan Province, and so are the great spirits of Hengyang army. Zeng Guofan, Peng Yulin and Zuo Zhongtang found the Xiang Army which was the birthplace of latter Xiang Army. The founder of International Systematic Genetics, Zeng Bangzhe wrote his masterpiece "Structure Theory―Macro-Evolution" in Hengyang to lay the theoretical base for the modern systematic biology and project. Nowadays, the famous writer Qiongyao mentioned Hengyang Road in Taibei many times in her writing to express her missing of hometown Hengyang; the great poet Luofu once said that he was a brave Hengyang people but not coward; the well-known writer Long Yingtai once said that Hengyang was always my dream place; the highest administrator of Taiwan Province also admitted that actually he was from Hengyang; and the last secretary of National Sports Bureau and the first Chief of National Sports Bureau Wo Shaozu said that his root was in Hengyang. In addition, there are many more celebrities form Hunan Province, especially Hengyang, like the famous general Peng Mingzhi, Wang Zifeng and Tan Guansan, another Zhang Haidi in Hunan Li Li, the anti-earthquake hero Tan Qianqiu, the administration chief of Taiwan administration bureau Liu Zhaoxuan, the great photographer Chen Changfen, the famous artist Zhong Zengya, the secretary of national policy research office Teng Wensheng, the secretary of Nanjing Military Region Lei Mingqiu Marshal, the Chief of National Sports Bureau Wu Shaozu, the last chief   of national Post and Tele Bureau, the first chief of National Information Industry Bureau Wu Jichuan, the chief of Nationa Publication Bureau Long Xinmin, the vice president of Petrol China Company Limited Li Xinhua, the deputy chief of National Education Bureau Zhou Yuanqing, the NO.1 playwright Liu Heping, the writer who gets most income Haiyan, the chairman of the Writer`s Association of Hunan Tang Haoming, the lyric writer who has been prized as the creative lyric writer in Chinese music circle by People`s Daily  Bing Jie, calligrapher Guan Chufei, host in CCTV Wangzhi、Xie Lis and Wu Yujuan and so on. What’s more, Hengyang is also the cradle of sports talents. The world champing Li Jing, Lin Jie, Liu Yuxiang ans Luo Xihe, the famous singer Li Guyi are all from Hengyang. 

Hengyang has superior location and convenient transportation. It resides Guangdong province and Guangxi province, situated in the fort of the north and south. It is a place of strategic importance,as well as the galaxy of various company .Meanwhile ,Hengyang has been regarded as the significant town of Hunan province for a long time. As one of the national 45 main traffic center, Hengyang’s jurisdictions roads go across and extend in all directions .The Xiangtan-Hengyang part of Beijing-Zhuhai expressway, Hengda (Pu) expressway ,107 national highway (from Beijing to Guangzhou ),322 national highway(from Hengyang to Youyiguang, Pingxiang city in Guangxi province, reaching Vietnam), “Three Southern National Highway ”(connecting the southern part of Hunan province, Jiangxi province and Guangdong province) throughout Hengyang-Shenyang expressway. Hengyang expressway and Beijing-Hongkong-Macau expressway, Xiangtan-Hengyang expressway,as well as Hengyang-Nanyue expressway are under construction. Beijing-Guangzhou railway and Xiang-Gui Railway go across in the urban area of Hengyang; 107 national highway, 322 national highway and Beijing-Zhuhai expressway run through Hengyang too.

In the future, Hengyang railway hub plans to introduce 13 lines in 7 directions, which will make Hengyang the biggest railway hub in southern China. The main rivers――Xiangjiang River, Leishui river ,Zhengshui River, Mishui River can navigate in four seasons .Xiangjiang River combines with Xiao River and Dongting Lake, where thousand-ton ships are able to pass through it. In recent years, Hengyang city has been striving to develop water transportation, managing to build railway, road and waterway Trinitarian transportation network. At the same time, government concentrates on the infrastructure building, strengthening the construction of waterway and parts, which achieves a qualitative leap. Hengyang new civil airport scouts for sites in Yunji town, Hengnan County. The airport is defined as the domestic regional airport, which will be finished in 2020.It will adopt plane sizes including  B7-800,A320 and ERJ145 and so on or the following models, whose flight range is about 800 to 1500 kilometers. The grade of this flight area is 4C at present, which will have a track about 2400 meters. The further development is 4D,and the track will lengthen to 3200 meters.

Hengyang has rich natural resources, famous as “the home of non-ferrous metals and non-metallic”, “a land of fish and rice” and “the holy land of tourism”. The proven mineral resources has 60 kinds, including gold, silver ,copper, iron ,lead ,zinc coda ,rock salt, kaolin ,sodium and feld. The reserves of albeit is the biggest in Asia. Borax is exclusive in southern China. Kaolin’s reserve is richest in China .the reserve of rock salt is highest in South China. In addition, Hengyang is the important production base of national commodity grain, pigs, fish, and oil. Its agricultural production have great fame all over the world,such as qualified rice, living pigs, daylily ,Hunan yellow chicken, Huzhi wine, Yunwu tea, and Longxu mat. Nanyue Heng Mount is the national 4A landscape and famous scenery, known as the“the most special one in the top five mountains in China”and "civilized regions ".The religious culture that Buddhism coexisted with Taoism is particular in religion in China .Nanyue Heng Mount has beautiful scenery,mixed with "beauty, depth, quietness and riskiness". In recent years, Hengyang has successfully held Cailun Technology Invention Festival and China Nanyue Heng Mount Longievity Cultural Festival.Hengyang government estimated that the local GDP is supposed to reach 116.8 billion Yuan, increasing by 14.7% in 2009 and gross fiscal revenue shall reach 7.003billion Yuan with an increase of 16.6%, and that the added value of large-scale industrial raise 24.5%, so that its growth rate gets into the first place in Hunan Province. Hengyang’s reserves is 110.3 billion with an increase of 18.2% and its loan balance is 45.98 billion Yuan with an increase of 25.9%. The growth rate of GDP , gross fiscal revenue and the scale of credit rank second in Hunan as well as the rate of urban residents` allocable income and rural residents` per capital cash income , while the growth rate of large-scale industrial win the first in 2009.

In the same year, with the plan of “Forge City in Three Years” carried on, 24 provincial key projects have been put under construction such as the sports center, Hengzhou Road, the square of Wuhan-Guangzhou Railway Station and the Hengzao connected line. In 2010, 32 infrastructure construction projects  will put into construction with investments of 14 billion. In 2009, the first international tender was introduced; the first high standard of urban expressway was completed according to the schedule; the first full-featured Wuhan-Guangzhou railway station and square were completed and putted into use.

The economical structure has been optimizing. The first, secondary and tertiary industry’s added up 20.6 percentage points. The growth rate of economic which was attributed to industrial development reached 52.5% with an increase of 1.8 percentage points over the previous year. Consequently, the financial strength steps forward. The total fiscal revenue of the city is 7.009 billion Yuan raising by 16.7%, in which local budget revenue is about 4.659 billion Yuan increasing  by 22.8%, and the tax revenue is up to 77.6%, and the fiscal revenue takes up 6.0%.

The employment situation in Hengyang is basically stable. By the end of the year, there are 54500 people newly employed in towns and the registered urban unemployment rate is 4.1%. What`s more,   the government has helped 2903 households of families unemployed and 38000 unemployed people get jobs again and aided 11000 households of rural poor families get reemployed.

The general price level remains steady. Compared with the same period last year, the annual consumer prices falls by 0.3%; the retail price drops by 1.1%; ex-factory price index of the industrial goods declines by 5.7% and the general purchasing price index of raw materials, fuel and power falls by 7.4%. The price index of the eight categories of goods, which define the general price, has presented a "four up and four down" pattern. The four rising categories: 1.1% rises in tobacco and living goods, 0.3% ups in clothing, 1.9% ups in medical care and personal products, and 0.8% rises in entertainment and educational services; decreasing can be seen in the following four categories: food drops by 0.2%, household appliances and repair services declines by 1.7%, transportation and communication falls by 1.3%, and residential drops by 1.3%.

The security situation in production is stable. Throughout the year, there were 910 accidents in production in total, increasing by 19.9% compared with last year; production safety accidents killed 308 people, declining by 14.4%; 728 road traffic accidents occurred, rising by 21.9%; the accident mortality rate of 100 million RMB worth of GDP is 0.26; the production safety accident mortality rate of 100,000 employees in industrial, mining and commercial enterprises is 4.91; the road traffic accident mortality  rate of 10,000 cars is 5.24; and the accident mortality rate of one million tons of coal is 3.76The main problems in the economic and social development exist in the urgent need for the shift of economic development mode, the outstanding structural contradictions, the heavy task of energy conservation, the lack of stamina for farmers to continue to increase income, the excessive weakness in resolving the livelihood issues and heavy employment pressure etc.

Since the Seventeenth People’s Congress, Hengyang established the general objective, "Development is theme and the industry should be the focus", to promote the progress of industrialization, urbanization and industrialization of agriculture. The leading group of Hengyang City has a strong sense of responsibility to commit to the reform and innovation of scientific development, improve people’s livelihood, promote harmony, and do solid work to achieve some progresses. And the people will work together to build Hengyang into a famous historical and cultural Chinese city, an advanced manufacturing base in Hunan Province, a significant town with distinct features in the southern China, and the modern livable city which Hengyang people take pride in.

 

 

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